A text editor allows you to type in the text of your code and save it in a file. In any operating system, UNIX included, there are many different text editors you could use; however, it's highly recommended that you use a text editor that actively supports the editing of code. (For example, notepad in Microsoft Windows would be terrible since it knows nothing about C++ code.)
The recommended text editors described here are emacs and xemacs. Both of these editors are free, built through a collaborative effort of a number of companies and universities. Xemacs is a descendent of emacs with some extensions, although they are equally powerful for writing C++ programs. In the rest of this document, we use emacs and xemacs interchangeably.
Once we have created a file containing our source program, we can use a compiler to translate a C++ program into machine language. This is the purpose of a compiler: to translate programs into machine language; graphically, we can picture it like so:
This is a bit of a simplification, but it is sufficiently accurate to give you an idea of what the compiler does.
The C++ compiler you'll use is called
g++; both it and emacs are GNU software from the the Free Software Foundation.
g++ is one compiler in a suite of compilers
known as GCC; each of these various compilers translates a different
g++ compiles C++ code.)
Our first program (listed in the main
exercise) will input a base-10 integer and display that same value
in base-10 (decimal), base-8 (octal) and base-16 (hexadecimal). We
will thus name the executable program
bases and name the
bases.cpp (C++ source programs end in
.cpp by convention.) We can use emacs to create the source program
% emacs bases.cpp &On an X Window System, the ampersand starts emacs in the background in a separate so that you can use both the command-line prompt emacs at the same time. So if you are not using X, omit the ampersand (
&) from the end.
Since the file
bases.cpp does not exist in the working
directory, emacs will create a new, blank editing window (called a
where you can type a program. If a file named
existed in the working directory, then emacs would create a blank
buffer, open that file and read the file into the buffer.
Emacs displays the name of the buffer in the status bar near the bottom of the window; the name of a buffer is the name of the file it is displaying.
bases.cpp buffer, enter the program listed in the
main exercise. If you are working from a
terminal or via telnet, you will have to type in this program; but if
you are using X and viewing this page in a web browser, you can
instead copy-and-paste the program into emacs quite simply.
In X, a block of text can be selected by dragging (holding down the left mouse button while moving the mouse) from the beginning to the end of the desired text. Most X environments support a copy-paste short-cut:
If your environment does not support this short-cut, try clicking the
right-mouse button with text selected, and a menu should appear
providing cut, copy and paste menu choices. Emacs has an
Edit menu which you can use to paste the selection.
Using one of these methods, copy the program into the emacs
As given in the main exercise,
bases.cpp is the work of a
fictitious person (Jane Doe) on a fictitious date (February 29,
1999), in a fictitious course (CS I) at a fictitious university (City
University). Edit the program's opening comment (the part between the
*/ symbols) as appropriate to make it your
work on the current date, in your course at your institution.
If you are using emacs in X, you can use the mouse to position the cursor at an arbitrary point by pointing at that point and clicking the left mouse button.
The editor command
C-d (hitting the
d keys simultaneously) can be used to delete the character
beneath the cursor;
C-k can be used to delete from the cursor
to the end of the line.
If you are running emacs outside of X, you can move the cursor with the arrow keys or with these editor commands:
C-p(previous line) to move up one line.
C-n(next line) to move down one line.
C-b(back) to move left one character.
C-f(forward) to move right one character.
If you make a mistake, you can always undo the effects of any emacs
command, either by using the undo command:
C-x u (type
C-x and then hit the
u key by itself), or by using the
Edit -> Undo menu item. The undo command can be used to undo
the effects of an emacs command that has completed.
Some emacs commands take a significant length of time, and you may
wish to stop the command while it is still being performed. For
this, you can use the get-out command:
bases.cpp buffer contains the program, you can store
this program in a file by entering the editor save-files command
C-x s or the
File -> Save menu item. Emacs will ask
you to confirm the operation in the mini-buffer at the bottom of the window:
Save file .../labs/lab0/bases.cpp? (y, n, !, ., q or C-h)To save the contents of the buffer in a file named
bases.cpp, answer 'yes' by typing
y. Emacs will then confirm the save operation by displaying an appropriate message.
When your source program is entered and saved, it is time to
translate it into the computer's machine language. In emacs, this
can be done using the editor compile command
(press and release the
Meta key (
then press the
x key, and then type the word
at which point emacs will echo what you type in the mini-buffer.
This will shift the cursor to the mini-buffer (at the bottom of the window) where emacs will print
Compile command: make -k
For simple programs like this one, the easiest way to translate our
program is to replace the
make -k with an explicit call to
the GNU C++ compiler
g++. Erase the
make -k and
replace it as follows:
Compile command: g++ bases.cpp -Wall -o basesThis changes the compile command from a call to
make(a program we will learn about in a few labs) to an explicit call to the GNU C++ compiler
g++, asking it to translate the program in the file
bases.cppis the file we want to compile, and it can appear anywhere in this command (after the
g++which must always be first).
g++to warn us on all potential sources of error. This will save you painful debugging in later labs, so you're strongly urged to start using it right away.
g++that it should write its output (i.e., the binary executable program) to a file named
bases. Otherwise, the executable program would be called
a.outwhich isn't particular descriptive.
Helpful hint: Always remember that the
g++is followed by the name of the executable program. Otherwise, the order of the command-line arguments does not matter.
Once you have edited the compile command, press the Return key and
emacs will split its window in two, displaying the
buffer (containing your source program) in one half and displaying a
*compilation* buffer (containing the results of your
compile command) in the other half.
bases.cpp is free of errors, then you should see a message
like this in the *compilation* buffer:
Compilation finished at Mon Sep 5 9:12:44
You might, instead, get an error listing:
bases.cpp: In function `int main()': . . . Compilation exited abnormally with code 1 at Mon Sep 5 9:12:44If you get an error listing (which you are guaranteed to get many, many, many times in the future) you must have made typing errors in entering the program.
Emacs has a next-error command:
C-x ` (that's a backquote, not a single quote or apostrophe). This moves the cursor
to the line in your source program where it discovered the error.
This is not to say that the problem is definitely there, but it
should be close by. Compare the original program with your copy, and
fix the error. Use the compile command again to see if you fixed the
mistake. Repeat this edit-compile cycle as many times as necessary
until your program compiles correctly. Once your program compiles
g++ writes the resulting executable file to the
bases is the same as running any other
program: we enter its name following an operating system prompt.
If you are using the X Window System, the emacs window is just one of many independently running windows. Locate a different terminal window in which the system prompt is displayed. Simply move the mouse into this window (or perhaps click in it) and the cursor should appear, indicating that it is ready for your command.
If you are using a terminal or telnet instead of X, use the emacs
C-z. The operating system will then suspend
emacs and display the system prompt, indicating it is ready to accept
Once you are at the operating system prompt, use
pwd to check
that your working directory is your
lab0 subdirectory. (If
not, change directory to make it so.) Then use
ls to display
the contents of
0, to make sure that both the source file
bases.cpp and the binary executable
bases are there.
At that point, you can enter this command:
% basesYour program should execute successfully.
If you are using X, simply move the mouse from your xterm window back into the emacs window. If necessary, click the mouse.
If you are using a terminal or telnet and you suspended emacs using
C-z, then enter this command:
% fgThis changes emacs from being suspended to being a foreground process.
To quit emacs (as opposed to suspending it), you can type the editor
C-x C-c. This will ask you first if you
want to save any files before it actually quits, so don't be afraid
to use it.
Don't quit yet, but remember this command for later when you are finished.
Keep this quick reference of emacs commands close by, especially if you don't have the luxury of the X Window System.
You should go back to the main exercise now and apply the scientific method to the code that you've now compiled and executed. Remember to bookmark this page so that you can re-use these instructions throughout this lab manual.
g++, minibuffer, opening comment, text editor, xemacs